Why the Decline of America’s Average IQ is a Cause for Concern

https://i1.wp.com/classiciqquiz.net/IQ1_files/1.jpgIQ† is one of those things that some people don’t like to talk about.  Yet, for so many reasons and in so many ways, it is an important concept, on which so many things in life turn.  It is well known that there is a strong positive correlation between IQ and educational level, lifetime earnings, success in your chosen vocation, personal confidence, and (perhaps surprisingly) success in social interactions and relationships.  In general, I think people accept that a higher IQ is a good thing to have.  What causes problems, however, is when we start talking about the genetic component of IQ.  After a long period in which social scientists sought to downplay or eliminate the notion of this genetic component, more recent studies in genetics and heritability seem to have consistently found that the genetic component of IQ makes up around 60-80% of this trait.  Certainly there are other factors involved such a childhood diet, early childhood education, and so forth.  However, these are not nearly as important as many social scientists had thought (or rather, hoped) they would be.

However, it is when you delve into the realm of talking about group IQ – the statistics of IQ variability between different racial and ethnic groups – that you really begin to run afoul of the sensibilities of today’s modern equalitarians and other SJW-influenced outlets.  Indeed, discussing IQ is the single most contentious element in the debates over human biodiversity.  In many circles, the very concept of genetic IQ differences, especially between groups, leads to the sort of self-censorship that causes some to wonder if it’s “racist” to even talk about whether there are “genes for IQ” or not.  It’s acceptable to observe that the reason blacks can, on average, run faster than whites is due to genetic variances.  However, when you start observing that American whites have an average IQ around 103, while American blacks average around 85, that’s when you get put into the punishment box.

Yet – IQ effects are real.  This has been most extensively investigated in recent years by Richard Lynn and Tatu Vanhanen (a psychologist and a political scientist, respectively), culminating in their books IQ and the Wealth of Nations and IQ and Global Inequality. They observed the strong positive correlation between average national IQ and national wealth as expressed through per capita GDP, GDP growth, and other economic indicators.  Basically, the higher the average IQ of a nation, the richer, more productive, and more innovative the nation’s economy is.

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/IQ_by_Country.png
The hate-iest hate map you will see all week.

As can be seen graphically in the map above, as well as in tabular form (esp. Table 4) in one of Lynn’s papers on the subject (also alternatively here, with numbers that are generally similar to Lynn’s), there are clearly clusters of nations which can be group by similar IQs, which not coincidentally also happen to represent similar racial and ethnic groups.  The progression from highest to lowest generally follows as: East Asia –> Northern and Western Europe and their Anglospheric descendents –> Russia and Eastern Europe/Balkans –> Southeast Asia and the Southwest Pacific –> Latin America –> The Middle East and South Asia –> Sub-Saharan Africa and descendants in the Caribbean.

However, there are other factors besides economic prowess which correlate positively with national IQ.  For instance, if you compare them with the lists for IQ given above, you can infer that national IQ and per capita scientific publications correlate fairly strongly.  So also do national IQ and patent applications per capita.  Though harder to quantify, I believe it could also be safely said that there is a positive correlation between national IQ and such things as social stability, the quality and extent of physical infrastructure, and the overall quality of life in a country.  I suspect most people who have traveled internationally would vouch for these.

Granted, IQ is not the only factor in all of this.  There are other components to these which help to explain some obvious outliers.  For instance, I see no reason to think that North Koreans are any less intelligent than their co-ethnics in South Korea (µ=106), yet the North obviously doesn’t produce much in the way of science or infrastructure or, well, anything (aside from what it can steal).  This can be chalked up to the loonie-toon crazy government they have.

Likewise, one can reasonably ask why it is that if IQ is so important for economic and social success, then how come the East Asian countries like China, Japan, and Korea didn’t ace everyone else the way Europe did?  Why didn’t East Asian countries develop high science, hit the industrial revolution, and become the people who made the modern world?  I believe the answer can be found by assessing some cultural differences between them and the West.  Westerners combine traits of high intelligence, assertiveness, cultural confidence, and creativity which no other civilisational group on the planet can match.  Asians had the intelligence, but not the  cultural confidence – Europe was eager to explore the world and “share its culture” with everyone else, while China and Japan took oftentimes drastic steps to shut out, or at least minimise cultural interaction with, the foreigners who they encountered.

In the same vein, East Asians do not tend to demonstrate as much genuine abstract creativity as Westerners do – Eastern arts, while beautiful and technically very advanced, rarely show the flashes of ingenuity which Western arts did; likewise Eastern philosophies tended to be grounded in moral and ethical questions and eschewed the sort of esoteric speculation which Greek and other Western philosophical systems pursued.

(Alternatively, one could look at Smart Fraction Theory, whose exposition includes a discussion of why East Asian countries don’t outperform white countries, despite their IQ advantage.  A theory proposed – but noted as not being supported by quantitative evidence – is that the East Asian IQ distribution has a larger kurtosis value, i.e. is narrower [fewer outliers, more clustering around the mean] than that for other groups.  If this were the case, then the East Asian distribution would be such that while their average IQ is slightly higher than those for European groups, they would still produce relatively fewer of the really high IQ individuals who are responsible for the really innovative scientific, entrepreneurial, and philosophical ideas that are the practical demonstrations of creative genius.)

At any rate, it’s obvious that IQ is important.  And yes, I am getting around to the point about declining American national IQ.

As a result of these IQ clusters, we can divide the countries of the world into four basic groups:

  1. Innovators – these are the countries with average national IQs ranging from ~96-108.  Typically, these nations are characterised by advanced infrastructure and educational systems, lower corruption and higher quality administration, and they contribute to scientific and technological advances to an outsized degree compared to the rest of the world.
  2. Maintainers – these are the countries ranging from ~88-95.  While they are certainly capable of keeping the lights on and the water flowing (for the most part), they don’t really contribute much to the development of new technologies or to scientific output.  They can maintain, but not advance to any great degree, the level of human civilisation, either technically or morally/philosophically.
  3. Stragglers – these countries range between ~80-87.  The levels of social organisation, infrastructure, and administrative competency are low, while corruption and socially disfunctional behaviours are high.  These societies aren’t necessarily falling apart, but they aren’t exactly successful by any reasonable metric, either.
  4. Basket Cases – these are the countries with average IQs below 80.  Most of them are either failing states, or else would be if they were not propped up by extensive foreign aid.  They are generally characterised by one or two core cities with some infrastructure and organisation, surrounded by a hinterland of tribal divisions or areas under the effective control of petty warlords.  The cities (and therefore the government) are often controlled by a small clique comprised of the hundreds or thousands (out of multiple millions of population) with IQs high enough to allow them to understand and apply things like administration, science, and economics.

So here’s the point about declining American IQ.  The listed number for the USA’s average national IQ is 98 – respectable enough, and in line with many European nations.  However, this number represents a decline from the “standard” 100 which represented the average American IQ from around the time when the Stanford-Binet test was adopted in the USA, around the time of World War I.  For reasons I will discuss in a moment, the average American IQ is thought to have declined even further, possibly as low as 95 or 96.

This is troublesome because this would represent a crossing of the threshold between America as an innovator nation and America as a maintainer nation.

What is the cause of this?  Frankly, the single greatest factor in declining average American IQ is the introduction of large numbers of low IQ immigrants from straggler and basket case parts of the world, especially Latin America and the Middle East.

A country’s population is like a cake – the quality of the individual ingredients will determine the quality of the overall product.  From an IQ standpoint, when you introduce millions of lower IQ immigrants, you lower the overall IQ of the country.  As we can see from Lynn’s data, the average IQs in the Latin American countries which send the most immigrants to the USA range between 79-87.  So far, the number of immigrants from Middle Eastern countries has been small compared to the Latin American influx, but considering that the average IQs of these nations range from ~85-90, the plans by the US government to increase “refugee” resettlement bodes poorly for long-term American average IQ as well.

One can see the effect which immigrant population has had in the United States from the map below.

https://i.ytimg.com/vi/sHEawhiwhsI/maxresdefault.jpg
The second hate-iest hate map you will see all week.

We see two things of interest from an HBD perspective.  The first is that the IQ by state appears to positively correlate with the percentage of white population, and therefore negatively correlates with percentage of non-Asian minority (NAM) population.  The five highest IQ states are Massachusetts (73.7% white + 6.3% East Asian), New Hampshire (93.9% white), North Dakota (90.0% white), Vermont (94.3% white), and Minnesota (83.1% white + 4.0% East Asian).  The other really high IQ states like Maine, Montana, and Iowa are also as white as Google’s workforce.

Converse, the lower IQ states are found in the South and the Southwest.  The South is explained by the relatively high percentage of blacks (µ=85).  The Southwest, on the other hand, has absorbed the bulk of the influx from Latin America.  In both cases, the componency of white IQ, which as we see from the northern states to be in the 103-104 range, is diluted by the lower IQ portions of their populations.

This affects the nation as a whole – we can’t simply isolate certain elements in our population.  Everyone – white, black or Hispanic – contributes to the “tangibles” in American society, everything from cultural output to crime rate.  As our average IQ continues to decline, our popular culture will continue to coarsen (we’ve gone from classical music to Khloe Kardashian in just a few short decades), the cultural acceptability of “being smart” and getting into things like science and engineering will decline (discouraging academic achievement because it’s “acting white” is already a problem in both the black and Hispanic communities), and we’ll see scientific and technical achievement begin to fall away.  As America becomes a maintainer nation, we’ll see corruption grow worse and social cohesion and organisation will weaken.

The reason for this is because as IQ declines, the proportion of the population exhibiting IQs above 130 – the point at where you begin to find truly gifted individuals who make significant creative and innovative contributions across all of the various fields of study – grows smaller and smaller.  Yet, it is exactly this high IQ portion of the population which really contributes in an outsized way to the stability and well-being of its nation.

I won’t bore the reader with an in-depth explanation of the statistical mathematics that underlie what I’ll be saying below.  Suffice it to say that large population IQ, like much else in nature and industry, maps onto a normal distribution (aka the “bell curve”).  The standard deviations (σ) for this curve are roughly 15 points each (i.e. +1σ = 115, +2σ = 130, etc. when µ=100).

The proportion of really intelligent individuals (IQ ≥ 130) in any society is actually fairly small.  But when the average IQ is lower, this proportion drops off in a non-linear fashion.  You can have a very large population, but if your average national IQ is low, you still won’t have many of these really high IQ people who move a society forward.  Let’s look at a contrast between the USA (using the “official” µ=98, ~324,000,000 population) and India (µ=81, ~1, 293,000,000 population).  When you plug in the numbers, the USA will have 1.64% of its population at IQ 130 or above, which translates to 5,313,600 individuals.  India, on the other hand, will have 0.05% of its population at IQ 130 or above, which calculates to 646,500 individuals.  Despite quadrupling the USA in population, India has just a little over 12% of the number of high IQ individuals as the USA (and a good share of them have moved to the USA, UK, or other Western nations).

That’s the power of the bell curve, and is why IQ decline should alarm any thinking person.  When you add low IQ population to a country, you are disproportionately adding to the low end of the bell curve, while adding very few high end individuals.  And even if the absolute number of IQ 130 or above individuals remains the same, the fact that you are adding millions of low IQ individuals (many of whom will end up as voters) means more people who are takers rather than contributers, more people who would rather the government pay for welfare than scientific research and who would rather we spend money on EBT cards instead of NASA.  A higher proportion of lower IQ individuals WILL have a depressive effect on the ability of high IQ individuals to act on their creativity, entrepreneurship, and independent thinking.  As we see in many African countries, large numbers of low IQ members of society absorb pretty much all the time and energy of the small high IQ population which has to take care of them.  Taken to the extreme, you’d find a situation not unlike that depicted in C.M. Kornbluth’s “Marching Moron” stories.

The obvious answer for how to arrest this trend is to get serious about sending as many of the masses of these immigrants home, and replacing our current “invade-the-world-invite-the-world” immigration system with one which selects for talented, high IQ individuals who will be net positives for us, rather than net drains.  We don’t need millions of foreigners who take low-skill jobs, drain the treasury through welfare, and commit a disproportionate share of crimes.  We would be wise, however, to entice the smaller numbers of high IQ individuals from other nations, who would be more easily assimilable and who would contribute in ways that the large percentage of our own population could not.

† – For the purposes of this post, I will be referring to numbers obtained from the Stanford-Binet test, as it is historically the most widely used IQ test.

 

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34 thoughts on “Why the Decline of America’s Average IQ is a Cause for Concern

  1. Seems it would be wrong for the West to take the poor countries’ few high-IQ citizens, when those poor countries need them even more.

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    1. Well Jack…actually that’s a pretty good point. It *does* seem rather unseemly for us to snatch away the relatively few folks in those societies who would be best able to help uplift their societies socially, technologically, and administratively.

      One mitigating point is that the training of these folks in our universities *specifically to the view that they would go back and help their own countries* has been less than successful because too many of them decide to stay here. Makes me wonder if we shouldn’t make returning home to be a mandatory requirement for getting educated here.

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  2. Well, its easy to blame decreasing IQ on blacks or other *non-white* races. But just seen in a logical way. The east asians, that are able to live in the US are usually very successfull, with an IQ higher than their average. This means, they even uplift your murican IQ more than you give them credit for.

    Second of all, lowest IQ countries most of the time dont have an educational system, which pretty much takes away 50% of the fluid intelligence (IQ is made of crystaline intelligence -born with- and fluid intelligence -what you learn-). Therefore its easy for us whites in our developed countries to claim we were smarter than the rest.

    And last but not least I tell you what the decline of American IQ is really causing. A nation with too much wealth and too less work. I see you americans talking about certain topics and just stuttering and repeating everything you try to express. Im sure me as a 20 yo Austrian have better English-Grammar than half of the US population. The fact, that the US are one of the countries with the least foreign languages learnt among the “intelligent white population” speaks novelles.

    I’m a 100 percent certain that your IQ without the “imported” asians would be on the verge to about 90 already. Not because of racial diversity (which isn’t as diverse as you may think, compared to european countries), no, but because of a nation with too much wealth and obesity that doesnt even seek for new standards.

    There you go

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    1. *And last but not least I tell you what really causes the decline of american IQ.

      Didnt check before posting, sorry

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    2. “Well, its easy to blame decreasing IQ on blacks or other *non-white* races. But just seen in a logical way. The east asians, that are able to live in the US are usually very successfull, with an IQ higher than their average. This means, they even uplift your murican IQ more than you give them credit for.”

      That’s why I specificied “NAMs” (non-Asian minorities), as well as including the percentage of Asians in the populations of the high-IQ states given above.

      However, because of their relatively small numbers nationwide, Asians have a very small effect on average IQ for the USA in aggregate. The disparity between white and Asian average IQ is not as wide (~100 vs. ~104) as that between whites on one hand and blacks and Hispanics on the other (~85 and ~93, respectively). When we consider that there are roughly 6-7 times as many Hispanics and around four times as many blacks as there are Asians, it’s easy to see why the upward effect of Asians on the overall average is more than negated by the downward effect of the others.

      As far as relative success rates in the USA, while Asians do excel, we should note that there isn’t a significant difference between avg Asian IQ for Asians in the USA versus those in their home countries. For every successful Chinese doctor with a 150 IQ, there are still going to be several flower shop owners ranging from 90-110.

      “Second of all, lowest IQ countries most of the time dont have an educational system, which pretty much takes away 50% of the fluid intelligence (IQ is made of crystaline intelligence -born with- and fluid intelligence -what you learn-). Therefore its easy for us whites in our developed countries to claim we were smarter than the rest.”

      What we pretty much know is that IQ is about 75-80% genetic. Yes, things like nutrition, etc. can have positive upward effects, but decades of experience show that the effect isn’t *that* great. It’s nibbling at the margins, if anything.

      It could very well be that the reason low-IQ countries have poor educational systems is because they are low-IQ countries, not the other way around. It takes a high-IQ base to build a strong educational system to begin with. The reason whites can say they are (on average) smarter than blacks is because this is, in fact, the case. It’s objectively and verifiably true per basically every relevant metric we could employ.

      “And last but not least I tell you what the decline of American IQ is really causing. A nation with too much wealth and too less work. I see you americans talking about certain topics and just stuttering and repeating everything you try to express. Im sure me as a 20 yo Austrian have better English-Grammar than half of the US population. The fact, that the US are one of the countries with the least foreign languages learnt among the “intelligent white population” speaks novelles.

      “I’m a 100 percent certain that your IQ without the “imported” asians would be on the verge to about 90 already. Not because of racial diversity (which isn’t as diverse as you may think, compared to european countries), no, but because of a nation with too much wealth and obesity that doesnt even seek for new standards.”

      The reason America has traditionally been more monolingual is because we didn’t *need* to learn foreign languages unless we were planning on traveling. I find it interesting that most Europeans don’t grok this concept, but I think it’s in large part because most Europeans don’t grasp how geographically massive the USA really is. We can drive from California to Massachusetts and it’s roughly the equivalent of driving from Barcelona to Moscow. We don’t live in small countries where you can travel a day in any direction and find people speaking any one of a dozen different languages.

      Verifiably, the decline in American IQ is due to the increase in NAM populations. If average wealth alone caused IQ to decline, then Switzerland and Norway would be dumb as posts. Likewise with work – Americans actually tend to work, on average, longer hours than Europeans do, even in white collar and professional careers. Sorry, but try as you might, I don’t think you’ll be able to successfully get around the racial component to all this.

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    3. “Im sure me as a 20 yo Austrian have better English-Grammar than half of the US population. The fact, that the US are one of the countries with the least foreign languages learnt among the “intelligent white population” speaks novelles.”
      The irony…So many errors.

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    4. I like how you claim to have better grammar than half the US population yet your post is riddled with blatant errors. Get off your high horse foreigner, Americans are not as stupid as you guys think.

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  3. A couple things worth noting in this.
    The US is a massive country compared to most. As a whole, you can’t necessarily quantify the entire average IQ of the US with its advancements in technology. Many individual states, like Massachusetts, have a higher IQ than most European countries and similar to that of East Asian countries. Also worth noting, California is the hub of silicon valley and likewise advancements in technology, despite having a lower average IQ than most of the rest of the nation.
    So I don’t necessarily think the data really matches the conclusions and assumptions you’ve made in the article, that lower IQ drags down innovation. You can look at some of the states with higher average IQs and yet you’d find very little in the way of scientific and technological advancements.
    I’m not stating of course, that IQ doesn’t correlate with scientific advancements, at least for individual persons. Just the conclusion that bringing in people of lower average IQs will somehow make the population, many of which already have substantially high IQs, lower in IQ and less capable of scientific and technological advancement, a bit silly.

    It’s also worth noting that, at least if you’re looking into party politics, that the same party that increases funding for social programs like welfare, also tends to increase funding for education and science and technological innovation. Although that can probably be explained by the fact that Democrats are split between extremes in IQ (those with substantially higher than average and those with substantially lower than average), while Republican voters are closer to the mean.

    But I would argue that spending on programs like welfare, have the potential to increase IQ. If you have someone with a low IQ who has a child with a low IQ, if they’re kept in a state of poverty and their children grow up in that state of poverty, you will end up with generations perpetually kept in a state of seeing little to no improvement in IQ. People who grow up in more stressed environments tend to have lower average IQs.

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    1. I also forgot to mention the fact that Massachusetts appears to have less whites and asians than most of the other high IQ states according to your own data. Yet it has the highest average IQ. This seems to be a tad conflicting with your conclusion.

      While IQ undoubtedly has a genetic component, you can’t completely rule out the environment which can have quite a large difference in a person’s IQ. You can see the impact of it in people of different races being raised by white foster families, for example, and in states that invest more in social programs for the poor. As I stated in my first response, I think programs like welfare have the potential to increase IQ over generations. Children raised in more stressful environments have far lower IQs than average.

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      1. I also forgot to mention the fact that Massachusetts appears to have less whites and asians than most of the other high IQ states according to your own data. Yet it has the highest average IQ. This seems to be a tad conflicting with your conclusion.

        Not really. Remember that when you’re dealing with social sciences data, you should expect more variability and lower correlations. You can’t expect four nines and a seven here.

        However, Massachusetts is not an outlier. It still supports my general thesis. To the extent that it *seems* a bit off, this is likely due to the *kind* of NAM in the state. Massachusetts is a centre for not only higher education, but also biotech, pharmaceuticals, and other science-heavy fields. The kind of NAMs in Massachusetts are themselves the outliers from the general run of NAMs in the country as a whole. Africans and Hispanics in Cambridge are going to be from the top 0.01% of their home societies, not the general run of campesinos and “refugees” like you will find in most other places. As such, they will not drag down the average state IQ like the blacks in Alabama and Hispanics in Arizona do.

        While IQ undoubtedly has a genetic component, you can’t completely rule out the environment which can have quite a large difference in a person’s IQ. You can see the impact of it in people of different races being raised by white foster families, for example, and in states that invest more in social programs for the poor. As I stated in my first response, I think programs like welfare have the potential to increase IQ over generations. Children raised in more stressful environments have far lower IQs than average.

        We know for a fact that IQ has around a 75-85% genetic component. That is not really up for debate. While environment has a marginal effect, it is not the magical panacea that you and others seem to think it is. In fact, we know THIS to be the case too, as we’ve spent decades and trillions of dollars on welfare, improving nutrition, improving education, etc., and have not closed the gap between black and white performance on metrics (most of which are themselves good proxies for IQ) across the board a whit.

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    1. I implied that *low IQ immigrants* commit disproportionately more crimes (esp. those from Latin America, and now the Middle East). Essentially, the populations that make up most of the illegal alien population in the USA.

      The Cato report (which you, the Hill, the NYT, and everyone else who breathlessly repeated its “findings” back in March) had some serious, fundamental flaws in its methodology which render it basically useless for the purposes for which it was supposedly commissioned.

      The two major flaws were: 1) It lumped legal and illegal immigrants together, and 2) it relied on self-reported “surveys” instead of actual government crime data (http://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/immigration/327229-crimes-by-illegal-aliens-not-legal-immigrants-are-the-real).

      1) It’s ridiculous to lump together high IQ and highly educated Chinese, Korean, and Indian legal immigrants together with low IQ, poorly educated Mexican, Guatemalan, and Somali illegal immigrants. As The Hill also tells us (http://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/immigration/326272-most-illegal-aliens-routinely-commit-felonies), illegal immigrants routinely commit felonies. Couple this with facts (http://www.dailywire.com/news/10155/9-things-you-need-know-about-illegal-immigration-aaron-bandler#) such as crime in LA has surged in correlation with increased illegal alien population and that back in 2005 (http://www.gao.gov/assets/100/93090.pdf), criminal aliens (both legal and illegal) made up 27% of the federal prison population despite making up only 9% of the adult population in the USA, and it becomes apparent that immigrants (ESPECIALLY, but not solely limited to, illegals) do indeed make up a disproportionately high share of crime in the USA. For legal immigrants, this effect is concentrated among the lower IQ Hispanic and other populations.

      2) The methodology in the Cato report is laughable. Have you actually read it? They rely on surveys which required criminal aliens to self-identify (yeah right), and which used statistical guesstimates to produce numbers they “think” are right because (as they stated) most states do not disaggregate illegal crime from that of legals and citizens, and some states don’t even record citizenship status at all.

      The fact of the matter is that the Cato report was created for the sole purpose of engineering a report which would say what the Cato Institute (open borders libertarians) *wanted* it to say, and which could then be circulated with a veneer of authority to friendly news outlets. the report is a joke, and so are the outlets relying upon it.

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  4. Does anyone ever question the quality of education that most American Blacks receive? Public schools are generally underfunded, and the farther you get into the inner cities the less budget they seem to have for even basic school books.

    I have my doubts that American Blacks are genetically inclined to lower IQs. After a century of equal schooling, lets retest and see where the results lie.

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      10 Historic Reasons The Middle East Is So Screwed Up.https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://listverse.com/2016/08/24/10-historic-reasons-the-middle-east-is-so-screwed-up/&ved=0ahUKEwivzcGIg6rVAhVKcj4KHUwTBeEQFggqMAI&usg=AFQjCNFkkpj2zCNoxsmkoBYx5W3lQ8jygw

      The US-NATO Invasion of Libya Destroyed the Country Beyond All … https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://www.alternet.org/world/us-nato-invasion-libya-destroyed-country-beyond-all-recognition&ved=0ahUKEwjgi4Haja3VAhXLMj4KHd_BCNYQFgghMAA&usg=AFQjCNGnASXjXupBhXOJGAee_arYLVTk7g

      How the US gave guns to Mexican cartels | New York Post. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://nypost.com/2013/12/01/book-excerpt-how-america-gave-guns-to-mexican-drug-cartels/amp/&ved=0ahUKEwirwI29iKrVAhWMNj4KHZLKC64QFggeMAA&usg=AFQjCNEuXMCC_PyNud-JCtfcdkRYN8TYHA&ampcf=1

      Fast & Furious: Obama’s First Scandal – National Review. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://amp.nationalreview.com/article/430153/fast-furious-obama-first-scandal&ved=0ahUKEwirwI29iKrVAhWMNj4KHZLKC64QFgguMAM&usg=AFQjCNFNSldtKDCE8JzUzd4RiYPHHOIATg&ampcf=1

      U.S. Government Helped Rise of Mexican Drug Cartel … – World. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://world.time.com/2014/01/14/dea-boosted-mexican-drug-cartel/&ved=0ahUKEwjyheiBiarVAhWJCD4KHayMBCEQFghnMAg&usg=AFQjCNFT_13V33noeSKfNXp-xLUT-1pe9Q

      The U.S. Government And The Sinaloa Cartel – Business Insider. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://amp.businessinsider.com/the-us-government-and-the-sinaloa-cartel-2014-1&ved=0ahUKEwijp7eXiarVAhUIWT4KHcFiDgsQFggqMAE&usg=AFQjCNEtC6WzRZNECcvcU9jCvvXwITCfLQ&ampcf=1

      United States Interventions in Mexico | Veterans Museum (USA supporting Dictatorship in Mexico). https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://www.veteranmuseum.org/war-history/united-states-interventions-mexico&ved=0ahUKEwjjsLCkiarVAhWEbD4KHTuFBHUQFgg0MAI&usg=AFQjCNH0mlT4ZnDE777-RHZlsI2cMYaoXw

      After 20 Years, NAFTA Leaves Mexico’s Economy in Ruins. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://m.truthdig.com/report/item/after_20_years_nafta_leaves_mexicos_economy_in_ruins_20140109&ved=0ahUKEwj17b_AiarVAhUCwj4KHeG_C7AQFggmMAM&usg=AFQjCNFxzNn63Dw-v6vcAtxoiOYpmHkXFA

      10 Ways The US Screwed Over Latin America – Listverse

      https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://listverse.com/2013/11/13/10-ways-the-us-screwed-over-latin-america/&ved=0ahUKEwiUlcOXiqrVAhWMbj4KHZzlB4IQFggeMAA&usg=AFQjCNGRipv00SsrbR5m4iwo6V09d9JrEg

      https://www.google.com/amp/s/m.mic.com/articles/amp/92581/how-the-u-s-screwed-up-latin-america-in-7-classic-historical-cartoons

      Many more places, but if I wrote about it… It would’ve taken me all night.

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    1. How do you calculate the IQ distribution that a population would achieve under “optimal environmental conditions” from the assumption that IQ is 80 % genetic?

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